Spoken English


Communication (from Latin communicate, meaning "to share")[1] is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs, symbols, and semiotic rules. The main steps inherent to all communication are:[2] 1. The formation of communicative motivation or reason. 2. Message composition (further internal or technical elaboration on what exactly to express). 3. Message encoding (for example, into digital data, written text, speech, pictures, gestures and so on). 4. Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or medium. 5. Noise sources such as natural forces and in some cases human activity (both intentional and accidental) begin influencing the quality of signals propagating from the sender to one or more receivers. 6. Reception of signals and reassembling of the encoded message from a sequence of received signals. 7. Decoding of the reassembled encoded message. 8. Interpretation and making sense of the presumed original message. The scientific study of communication can be divided into: • Information theory which studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information in general; • Communication studies which concerns human communication; • Biosemiotics which examines communication in and between living organisms in general. The channel of communication can be visual, auditory, tactile/haptic (e.g. Braille or other physical means), olfactory, electromagnetic, or biochemical. Human communication is unique for its extensive use of abstract language. Development of civilization has been closely linked with progress in telecommunication. Nonverbal communication describes the processes of conveying a type of information in a form of non-linguistic representations. Examples of nonverbal communication include haptic communication, chronemic communication, gestures, body language, facial expressions, eye contact etc. Nonverbal communication also relates to the intent of a message. Examples of intent are voluntary, intentional movements like shaking a hand or winking, as well as involuntary, such as sweating.[3] Speech also contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, e.g. rhythm, intonation, tempo, and stress. It affects communication most at the subconscious level and establishes trust. Likewise, written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, the spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotion. Contents: • Non-verbal communication • Verbal communication • Written communication and its historical development • Business/Corporate • Political • Family • Interpersonal • Barriers to effectiveness o Cultural aspects • Nonhuman o Animals o Plants and fungi o Bacteria quorum sensing • Models • Noise • As academic discipline Nonverbal communication demonstrates one of Paul Watzlawick's laws: you cannot not communicate. Once proximity has formed awareness, living creatures begin interpreting any signals received.[4] Some of the functions of nonverbal communication in humans are to complement and illustrate, to reinforce and emphasize, to replace and substitute, to control and regulate, and to contradict the denotative message. Nonverbal cues are heavily relied on to express communication and to interpret others' communication and can replace or substitute verbal messages. However, non-verbal communication is ambiguous. When verbal messages contradict non-verbal messages, observation of non-verbal behaviour is relied on to judge another's attitudes and feelings, rather than assuming the truth of the verbal message alone.

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